Melikov I.M., Khrapov S.A. —
The phenomenon of "Russian religious socialism": N. Berdyaev about the specifics of socialism and the Soviet reality
// Philosophical Thought. – 2017. – ¹ 7.
– P. 21 - 33.
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Review: The subject of the article is that socialism as a specific historical form of existence spiritual and social reality. The research urgency is caused by the significance of the socialist period of Russian history, as well as the 100th anniversary of the 1917 revolution. The aim of the study is a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of socialism, it really is historical manifestations and idealistic nature in the context of the religious philosophy of N.. Berdyaev, by means of social-philosophical and theological analysis. The subject of the research is concretized in the following sections of the article: "problem", "the transformation of the ideas of Marxism in "religious socialism", "a"Religious socialism" and the Soviet reality". The research methodology is based on the principles of comparativism, systematic and interdisciplinary. The authors used historical-philosophical, socio-philosophical, socio-cultural, socio-theological approaches to the analysis of socialism as a specific historical form of existence spiritual and social reality. The novelty of the research is reflected in the following conclusions: 1. The transformation of the ideas of Marxism in Russian "religious socialism", is one of the most important paradoxical social and cultural processes of the Russian history of the XX century, largely reflecting ambivalence of the Russian national character and contradictory nature of the "soul" of the Russian people. A theocratic form of socialism in our country was inevitable, because of her religious-transcendental civilizational grounds. That is why socialism is so quickly became the ideal and the real spheres of social life. 2. An extremely important feature of the theocratic nature of Russian socialism is its bearer - the Soviet people – a phenomenon quite unique in history. It characterized, in our view, three main feature.First, it's ideological. Not ideological, and ideology. It is not about political ideology, and psychological characteristics. Ideas for Soviet people was more important than life itself. Ideas for him was the ideal life, and therefore become a kind of idols. The Soviet people were looking for a lofty ideal, strive for it and your life necessarily correlated with it. Communism was presented to the Soviet man ideal, but only because he is set to ideal. Otherwise, any ideal becomes a mere phraseology.Secondly, romanticism. Without him, the Soviet people simply would not have survived the stresses of everyday life in socialist reality. Thirdly, morality, bordering on religiosity. Soviet morality, values which did not differ from the universal-religious, in fact was the basis, if I may say so, the Soviet religion.3. The Soviet system was a theocracy, because above all he proclaimed not only spiritual, but even of religious values, imbuing socialism with transcendental meanings. Socialism was based on the romance of the soul, he displaces the soul of man from material and social life in areas of significantly elevated, more spiritual, being in which she can find romanticism. Socialism does not allow the human soul to fall to the ground, because for him it means death. That is why in the years of socialism there have been many brilliant creations of culture. The Soviet system, in fact, ceased to exist, when this exalted qualities came down to earth realism and the basest pragmatism.
Keywords: culture, religion, state, human, society, Marxism, God, theocracy, socialism, social reality
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